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The logo is the image representing a company every time it appears in public and in private. Morphologically, there are three types of logos named for their combination of icon and typography. Within corporate identity, the logo is the most important item: it is essential and foundational.

It is essential because it is a design item being absolutely necessary for a company to exist. This is so due to two main reasons. This first one is that, given the advancement of globalization, companies have become an abstraction since they stopped being tied to small communities, these communities broke up and there appeared a company-motley market. The abstract nature of companies becomes a problem if it does not have a material element to merge with. The material object that comes to prevent companies from disappearing is the corporate Logo, a material item the public gets related with to have the company present and be able to think about it, making it exist. The second one is simpler. No company can launch its products into the market if they do not have a logo printed. Nobody would buy a product without Logo, since the Logo is quality guarantee, it is the company's signature, it is the item saying "we did this and we take responsibility for it". A product without a corporate Logo causes rejection and suspicion. Would you buy a jam if there is no logo on it?

It is foundational because it is necessarily the first design item of a company. Given what we mentioned above, it is clear that, first of all, a company must order the design of its logo. But what does the Logo found? Being the first design item, the corporate Logo cannot be based on any other parameter other than the designer's work effectiveness together with the customer to make this design become an item reflecting an appropriate concept, an appropriate idea of what the company wants to transmit to the consumer's public. Then, once the Logo has been created, the following items composing corporate identity (Web site, personal cards, catalogues, envelopes, packaging) will have parameters to respect, a criterion to follow. Which criterion is it? Well, of course, the one created by the company's Logo. Colors, typographies, textures, shapes, etc. used by the Logo are there to convey a message and if the other corporate identity components do not follow those parameters, a joint message will never be achieved; that is the corporate identity's aim.

Below, we will introduce the three types of existing Logo. To help you choose which one is the most convenient for you, we will describe them highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. However, your choice will surely depend on what you want to put in your Logo. For instance, as we will see, the isotype does not have typography and you may like it best because of its benefits but since your company has a brandslogan you cannot use it. Then, we will just explain advantages and disadvantages in general; you will make the final decision taking into account your company's particular features.

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Logotype:

it is the type of Logo exclusively based on typography. The logotype, then, absolutely excludes the icon. When it is used, the company's name is usually placed on it. But what do you need to consider in this Logo? Typography (font type) transmits information in two ways: verbal and non verbal. The first one uses words and letters from the language to be read and interpreted by the public. In this case, the verbal message will be composed of the company's name and eventually the brandslogan. The non verbal message is the one conveyed by typography itself, it is the text connotation; that is to say, the verbal message connotation. The font type used to write something powerfully connotes the content of the text shown. Writing a court report using a funny typography will confuse the reader a lot, since on the one hand he gets a really serious message and on the other, the font type tells him it is something funny. In the case of the logo, the importance of the font type you choose is essential.

Isotype:

it is the type of logo lacking typography at all and only composed of icon (image). The worldwide famous Nike logo is an example of this type. The function of the icon is similar to function of the typography non verbal message. That is to say, it cannot convey something denotatively; it can never achieve the accuracy of the language words. However, a good design will convey a very clear and well-defined message, understood without any inconveniences. Although it is true that the risk of lack of understanding is higher, psychological studies have proved that images are easier to keep in mind than words. Thus, this logo wins on the memory field what he loses on the interpretation field and, given that the memorable nature of a Logo is one of its most important features, this type is not inconsiderable.

Isologotype:

as you can tell from its name, this type of Logo combines the two previous ones. That is to say, the isologotype combines icon and typography. So, this one is the easiest one to understand since it offers two information transmission channels: if one fails, you will be able to use the other one to reinforce it. In other words, the communicative powers of the two previous ones are added up. Somebody could be tempted to think that the memorable powers of the two are added up, but that is not the case. There is an advertising design rule saying "the more complex an item, the harder to remember it". Then, since it has more items than the previous ones, this Logo will theoretically be the hardest one to remember. However, the way memory works is usually capricious and what may seem to be hardest may not be actually so. The icon may help the recipient remember the typography, the slogan helps to remember colors and the latter helps to remind the company's name, etc. That is to say, only in theory, the isologotype is the Logo that is hardest to remember.


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